Forced Convection

Forced convection studies the heat transfer between a moving fluid and a solid surface. There are various types of forced convection, such as flow in a tube or across a flat plate and so on. In general there are no mathematical solution available to all types of forced convection problems. These problems are usually analyzed by equations based on empirical values and generalized by dimensional analysis. The analysis can be formulated by the following equation:

Nu= Nusselt number
Pr= Prandtl number
Re= Reynolds number
Ma= Mach number

In cases when the flow speed is low, the influence of the Mach number can be neglected and we obtain:

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