Counter-flow Heat Exchanger

Figure above shows a fluid flowing through a pipe and exchanges heat with another fluid through an annulus surrounding the pipe. In a counter-flow heat exchanger fluids flow in the opposite direction. If the specific heat capacity of fluids are constant, it can be shown that:

dQ/dt= Rate of heat transfer between two fluids
U= Overall heat transfer coefficient
A= Area of the tube
T= Logarithmic mean temperature difference defined by:

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